Science for Technology for Development

An Expanded Programme of Scientific Co-operation in the Commonwealth

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‘One cannot expect economic or social development unless a country has some technology and innovation; There cannot be a healthy programme of applied technological research unless there is some continuing basic research in progress as well.’ - Extracts from the Report.

This is the report of an expert group of scientists established by the Commonwealth Science Council to explore ways and means of promoting an expanded programme of scientific co-operation. Their remit was to examine and identify key issues for expanding cooperative scientific and technological programmes in the Commonwealth, especially in new emerging areas with major significance for the development efforts of member countries in the next 10-20 years.



Natural Resources

The most accurate index of a country's industrial progress is its per capita energy consumption. Over 30 countries within the Commonwealth have an annual per capita income of less than US$1,000 (Appendix G; Page 93), and an energy consumption of 0.1-0.5 metric tons of coal equivalent (mtce). Compare this energy consumption with 7.0 mtce for Australia, 5.6 mtce for the United Kingdom and 13.5 mtce for Canada.


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