Exploring the Bias

Gender and Stereotyping in Secondary Schools

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Achieving the Millennium Development Goal to promote gender equality and to empower women is a continuing aim for all developing countries. Education is key to achieving this goal, and it is imperative that gender equality is implemented from the classroom onwards. The challenge for schools is to ensure that they create an ethos that promotes gender equality in all aspects of the classroom and other school activities.

Through seven case studies of secondary schools in India, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Samoa, Seychelles, and Trinidad & Tobago, Exploring the Bias analyses whether schools perpetuate gender stereotypes and investigates how this can be prevented.

By comparing classroom practices in such diverse countries, this book provides insights and recommendations that will be useful for policy-makers and educators worldwide.



Gendered Education: A Case Study of Schools in Pakistan

Pakistan?s position on the equal rights of its citizens is well articulated in the constitution of 1973, which ensures women?s inclusion in all walks of life by denouncing any discrimination on the basis of sex alone. The constitutional position and emphasis on equal rights and opportunities for women was meant to address the traditionally low social status and minimal participation of women in most social sectors (Farah and Shera, 2007). In the years 1949?50, two years after Pakistan?s independence in 1947, the overall gross participation rates at primary and secondary levels were low at 16 per cent and 9 per cent respectively. These figures were even lower for female participation i.e. 4 per cent at primary level and 3 per cent at secondary level (Jalil cited in Farah and Shera, 2007).


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