Examinations have a determining influence on careers, and accordingly they arouse emotional attitudes: they have been referred to both as “the central nervous system of education” and as “a millstone round the necks of the schools.” Such reactions arise partly because examination results are used without sufficient thought to their validity and partly because many examinations are not constructed with clearly defined objectives. Despite the early researches which revealed the extent of the unreliability of examination marks, only recently have steps been taken to produce the improvements which are so necessary in any system of large-scale examining.


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